These three main factors, Heat Convection, Heat Conduction and Thermal Radiation, all play a role in describing Thermal Insulation. The most important thing to know about it is that insulating material prevents energy transfer between objects through different forms, such as physical contact or gas transmission lines filled with air. Without this protection, we could have many problems, including system shutdowns which may lead to close incidents at workplaces like factories where lives depend on their quick response times when faced with emergencies.
What is Thermal Insulation?
Importantly, to describe thermal Insulation, we must understand these three main factors: Heat convection, heat convection, and Thermal Radiation.
Insulating material prevents heat transfer between objects in thermal contact with specifically designed insulation materials. Therefore, the insulation material must possess specific properties. As said earlier, insulating materials lower or prevent heat flow between two objects or matter. Not only are they installed in homes but commercial buildings and industries. They are also used in industrial systems to control heat loss and gain.
Lack of insulating materials, especially in industrial systems, may lead to complete failure. Additionally, it may result in industrial accidents and shutdowns. Thermal Insulation will reduce heat flow. The insulation type used will affect the heat flow. The higher the Insulation R-value, the better the insulation properties.
Insulation R-value measures the Insulation’s ability to reduce heat flow. The Thermal Properties of the Insulation installed are critical to getting the best results. A home underinsulated will not have good thermal properties.
Thermal Insulation for homes is vastly different from Insulation for industrial plants. However, they all have to have excellent thermal properties. For the homeowner, the highest R-value is the best Thermal Insulation properties.
In industrial plants and boilers, the density and thickness of the mineral wool insulation are the managing factors for the thermal properties of the Insulation. So the highest density and the thickest product will give the best Thermal properties.
How thermal Insulation works
Naturally, Heat flows in three ways:
How water boils, or the lights come on when we flick the switch. Well, this is all made possible by Convection.
Firstly think about this. Why does your clothing get hot when it is being ironed? Because the Heat from the iron is transferred to your clothes when they come into contact with the hot iron.
Conduction is the transfer of energy in Heat or electricity from one atom to another within an object by direct contact. Conduction occurs in solids, liquids, and gases. As we know, liquids and gas are less dense. On the other hand, solids transfer Heat or energy more effectively because the molecules are packed closer together.
The two main types of Conduction are the Conduction of Heat and electricity.
Heat conduction results in an increase in temperature resulting in the molecules vibrating. As a result of the vibrating molecules, surrounding molecules transfer the Heat.
To transmit Heat through materials via direct contact. The process takes place in liquids, solids, and gases. An excellent example of Conduction is in the kitchen. When you place a pot on your stove and turn the Heat on, the pot’s bottom will be heated, making it hot. If you are preparing food, add the ingredients to the cooking pot, and we can prepare them for consumption. You are transferring heat conduction. For example, if my hand is warm and you are cold, I transfer heat energy to you when the warm hands contact your hand.
Conduction With Electricity
This movement can produce an electric current, which electrons or ions may carry. An example of electrical Conduction is when you accidentally get electrocuted when you touch a live wire because your body contains water, a conductor of electricity. Another example is electricity passing through cables and conductors to watch TV or use a computer.
How to reduce heat transfer by Conduction
To reduce heat transfer by Conduction, use a natural or artificial insulating material. The suitable thermal insulation material should have a small amount of solid compared to the void. It is important to note that the material should also consist of discontinuous fibres or thin connecting walls. Fill the gaps with an inert gas to lower heat transfer. By installing SANS-compliant roof insulation in the home, one can expect an improvement of 5-8 degrees in summer and winter.
Convection is heat transfer by the bulk movement of molecules within fluids such as gases and liquids. The initial heat transfer between the object and the fluid occurs through Conduction, but the bulk heat transfer happens due to the motion of the fluid.
- Convection is the heat transfer process in fluids by the actual motion of matter.
- It happens in liquids and gases
- It may be natural or forced.
- Involves a bulk transfer of portions of the fluid
How Does Heat transfer Through Convection?
When liquids get heated from below, thermal expansion occurs, resulting in the lower levels of liquid or gas being less dense. the lighter, less viscous fluid rises.
At the same time, the more solid liquid replaces the more buoyant fluid.
It transfers the Heat through Convection in this way.
Types Of Convection
As we know, there are two types of Convection, and they are:
- Natural Convection
- Forced Convection
Natural Convection occurs due to buoyant force, as there is a difference in densities caused by the difference in temperatures; it is known as natural convection.
Examples of natural Convection are oceanic winds.
Forced Convection: When external sources such as fans and pumps create induced Convection, it is known as forced convection.
Excessive convection uses water heaters or geysers for instant water heating and a fan on a hot summer day.
How to reduce heat transfer by Convection
To ensure Heat is not lost via Convection, insulate using a material with air pockets to minimize air movement. For instance, one can use discontinuous fibres with small voids with minimal changes. You can also incorporate a fan-driven furnace or wear protective clothing, which is standard for cold, windy days. As a result, it will lower heat loss from your body into the surrounding air.
Refers to transmitting infrared energy from a hot object or surface to a cold surface. The medium of choice is either vacuum or air. It is essential to understand that radiant energy moves in space. While doing so, it does not heat anything. Its energy is absorbed only when an object blocks its path. As a result, the thing converts the energy into Heat. You ought to know that all materials emit radiant energy depending on their surface characteristics and temperature.
If the surface temperature is higher, the radiant energy emitted will also be higher. A good example is the sun’s rays and how the Heat generated affects the world – people, buildings, plants, and animals.
How to reduce heat transfer by radiation
To stop heat transfer by radiation, use a low-emissivity surface. Why? Heat transfer by radiation is absorbed by a material resulting in a temperature rise. Now that the material is hot, it will emit radiant energy. Conversely, very little radiant power will be transmitted when using a material with low emissivity. In addition, the low-emissivity materials have a shiny metallic finish, making them reflective.
For instance, a thermos flask is characterized by using a shiny material on the inside. It means that Heat from solids or liquids is reflected, which is why a thermos flask keeps your food warm for longer.
The aspect of an insulation material
You ought to know that there is a difference between natural and artificial insulating materials, especially regarding performance. According to researchers, the essential aspect of any insulation material is its performance of the Insulation. It refers to how an insulating material can conduct itself by reducing heat loss between objects or matter. Manufacturers provide performance expectations that act as a guide.
Factors Affecting the Performance of Thermal Insulation Material.
Thermal resistance is expressed in resistance per unit area. It helps to connect the material’s width to its thermal conductivity. The thicker the insulating material, the less heat flow and conductivity. Therefore, it is recommended that one seek material with higher thermal resistance for adequate Insulation.
Types Of Thermal Insulation Materials
There are two main contenders in the Thermal Insulation Industry.
- One is domestic Home Insulation for homes and offices. Traditionally lower density with Rolls or loose fill blow-in. Temperature rating between 150 and 250 degrees C.
- The second is the high-temperature Thermal Insulation products for boilers and furnaces. Mostly high-density Rolls cable of handling from 250 – 1500 Deg C.
Roof Thermal Insulation
Roof Thermal Insulation improves indoor temperature in the home, resulting in a more energy-efficient home. It is estimated that Insulated homes will cover the cost of Insulation in two to three years on energy savings alone.
Aerolite Thermal Insulation
Today, high and medium-density fibreglass insulation products are more efficient than standard batts. As a result, these are excellent at preventing heat loss from your home or business – one of which is Aerolite Insulation! In addition, it also helps reduce energy costs for you by keeping air conditioners working less often during summer time since cool breezes come through windows instead of ceiling vents where they used to before living space was cut up into small spaces between walls. With so many benefits attached to just 1 product, there isn’t much reason why anyone should suffer when others don’t have
Knauf Ecose Thermal Insulation
Ecose is one of the world’s leading manufacturers of thermal Insulation. The Ecose Insulation has excellent thermal performance and class-leading fire rating if installed correctly to reduce your home’s energy costs while reducing heat loss or gain during winter! With its high recycled content, Knaufs’ materials are mainly derived from nature using only natural resources like glass mineral wool products which have low environmental impact over time due to their soundproofing abilities compared with other alternatives available today.
Isotherm Thermal Insulation
Polyester Isotherm Insulation is polyester-type Insulation manufactured from PET plastic. The Insulation is dust free and allergy-free. The Isotherm is one of the best Eco-Insulation products on the market. As a result, Isotherm itself is recyclable. Sadly Isotherm is no longer SABS-approved.
Blow In Insulation
Blow-in types of Insulation are not particularly popular in South Africa. However, they have their place in the market.
High-Temperature Industrial Thermal Insulation
The material is known for its high density and ability to withstand hot temperatures. Mineral wool insulation benefits include being noncombustible and fireproofing against sparks or radiation exposure in industrial settings, where it’s typically used as a boiler or pipeline coverings that protect equipment from damage from accidents such as fires caused by short circuits.
In addition, mineral-based fibreglass may offer some protection against intense flames but not enough, so they should still be considered dangerous if there were ever a large-scale combustion event; this type of product considerably restricts airflow because most strands won’t break.
What is Rockwool? The insulating material known as Rock Wool has been used in various industries to provide thermal Insulation. This post will explore what it’s all about and how you can use this amazing product for your home or business! Rockwool Insulation takes temperatures of up to 675Deg C.
Ceramic Fibre Insulation
Ceramic Fibre insulation is a material that can withstand extremely high temperatures. A durable and reliable formula made from natural resources such as quartzite fibres which have been transformed through chemical techniques into something unique – Insulation Glass Mat (IGM) used by industry professionals around the world